Different types of EV charging connectors affect charging speeds for electric cars, and in the UK, these chargers are classified as slow, fast, rapid and ultra-rapid.
Slow charging is available across four AC connector types between 3 – 7 kW, which is typical for home, workplace, and on-street charging. Fast chargers, on the other hand, can deliver power up to 22 kW, enabling EVs to recharge in a matter of hours. Rapid charging is capable of delivering up to 50 kW, allowing EV drivers to recharge their cars in 30 minutes to an hour.
For those who own a Tesla, the company has its own proprietary charging system called the Tesla Supercharger. These chargers can deliver up to 250 kW, which is significantly faster than other charging options, allowing Tesla owners to recharge their vehicles in as little as 20 minutes. The UK currently has over 100 Tesla Supercharger stations, making it easy for Tesla owners to travel long distances without worrying about running out of battery.
Slow charging is the most common type of charging and is suitable for overnight charging at home or work. The slow charging speed ranges from 3-6kW, and it can take up to 12 hours to fully charge an electric vehicle (EV), depending on the battery size. Slow charging is usually done using a Type 2 connector, which is the most common connector type in the UK.
Public slow charging stations are available in many locations, including car parks, supermarkets, and shopping centres. These charging points are usually free to use, but some may require a subscription or payment via a mobile app.
Slow charging is best suited for drivers with a daily commute of less than 50 miles or for those who can charge their vehicle for an extended period. It is also ideal for those who have access to a charging point at home or work and can charge their vehicle overnight.
Some examples of slow charging stations in the UK:
It is important to note that slow charging may not be suitable for all EV drivers, especially those with a larger battery capacity or who require frequent long-distance travel. In such cases, fast or rapid charging may be more appropriate.
Fast charging is the next step up from slow charging and is designed to provide a faster, more convenient charging experience. Fast chargers typically provide a charging speed of up to 22 kW, which can provide a full charge to an electric car in around 3-4 hours.
Fast chargers are often found in public locations such as car parks, supermarkets, and service stations, and are becoming increasingly common across the UK. They are typically operated by a range of different providers and may require payment via a mobile app or RFID card.
One of the biggest benefits of fast charging is that it allows electric car owners to top up their battery quickly while on the go, making long journeys much more practical. However, it is worth noting that not all electric cars are compatible with fast chargers, so it is important to check your car’s specifications before using one.
Some examples of popular fast charging connectors in the UK include the Type 2 connector and the CCS (Combined Charging System) connector. These connectors are used by a range of different providers and can be found at various locations across the country.
It is worth noting that fast charging is not the fastest type of charging available, with rapid and ultra-rapid charging providing even faster charging speeds. However, fast charging is still a significant improvement over slow charging and provides a convenient and practical charging solution for many electric car owners.
Rapid charging allows you to charge your EV quickly and efficiently, making it a popular choice for those on the go. Rapid charging stations are available in both AC and DC types, with DC being the most common. These stations are capable of charging an EV up to 80% in just 30 minutes, depending on the battery size and the charging speed.
Most rapid charging stations in the UK have a power output of 50 kW, although there are some that offer a higher power output of up to 150 kW. These higher-powered stations are known as ultra-rapid charging stations, and they are capable of charging an EV up to 80% in just 15 minutes.
Rapid charging stations are compatible with most EVs, but some models may require an adapter to use them. Tesla Superchargers, for example, are only compatible with Tesla vehicles, and they offer a higher power output of up to 250 kW. These stations are capable of charging a Tesla up to 80% in just 30 minutes, making them the fastest charging option for Tesla owners.
It’s important to note that rapid charging can have an impact on your EV’s battery life, especially if you use it frequently. It’s recommended to use rapid charging only when necessary and to rely on slower charging options for regular use.
Ultra-rapid charging is the fastest charging option for electric vehicles. These chargers can provide up to 350 kW of power, allowing you to charge your vehicle up to 80% in as little as 20 minutes. These chargers are typically found on highways and major travel routes, making them ideal for long-distance travel.
Ultra-rapid chargers use a DC connector, which means they can only be used by vehicles with DC charging capabilities. The most common DC connector in the UK is the CCS (Combined Charging System) connector, which is used by most EV manufacturers. Tesla vehicles, which have a proprietary charging protocol, can also use ultra-rapid chargers with an adapter.
As of March 2023, there are over 2,000 ultra-rapid charging points in the UK, with more being added every day. These chargers are typically operated by commercial charging networks, such as Ionity and BP Pulse, and require payment either through a subscription or a pay-as-you-go system.
Tesla Superchargers are a type of fast-charging station designed by Tesla Motors specifically for Tesla electric vehicles. These stations are capable of delivering up to 250 kW of power, which allows for a full charge in as little as 45 minutes.
Tesla Superchargers are strategically placed along major highways and in popular destinations, making it easy for Tesla owners to travel long distances without worrying about running out of charge. As of 2023, there are over 27,000 Superchargers worldwide, with over 1,000 in the UK alone.
Supercharging is free for Tesla owners, but there are certain limitations. Tesla owners are allowed to use the Superchargers for free up to a certain amount of kWh per year, after which they are charged a fee per kWh. However, this limit is generous and is unlikely to be reached by most Tesla owners.
One of the main advantages of Tesla Superchargers is their speed. They are capable of delivering a charge much faster than other types of charging stations, which means less time spent waiting for your car to charge. Additionally, Tesla Superchargers are very reliable and are well-maintained by Tesla, ensuring that they are always in good working order.